Definitions and Terms
Halal: That which Allah and the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) have allowed to be done in a lawful manner.
Halal Inspector, Auditor or Observer: Experts and authorities appointed by the Halal certification institution.
Halal Food: Foods permitted to be eaten by Islam.
Permitted (mubah): Actions that a person is free to do.
Haram: that which Allah and the Prophet have completely and specifically forbidden. Engaging in an act that is Haram (i.e. eating food like pork, drinking alcohol) would lead to punishment in the Next Life, and maybe even in this Life.
Makruh: Something that is not liked. Also defined as offensive. Makrouh is close to haram but in Quran and in Sunnah, it is not as clearly defined as haram..
Mashbûh(suspicious): Things about which there is no precise or solid evidence for its being halal or haram
Denominations (Mazhab): Each of the schools of fiqh in Islam.
Najis(filthy): Haram and not allowed. Pork, blood, feces, urine, wine, vomit, pus, and other solid and liquid things.
Tasmiya: That is “Bismillah. Allahuekber”
Zabiha: , Animals slaughtered with a sharp instrument according to Islamic rules.
Harmful to human health: Everything that is found out harmful to human health by Medical authorities. It is divided into two as absolute and relative damage. Absolute damage is the one that has the same effect on everyone. Relative damage, on the other hand, depends on the individuals. For example, some substances are harmful solely to diabetics or cardiac patients.
This specification is about the preparation and packaging of Halal food and the slaughtering of animals. Therefore, it should be applied in every plant or facility dealing with Halal Food processes. GIMDES, the authorized body in Turkey for certifying halal status, will use this specification for determining the Halal status of applicant companies and their products. This specification is designed to be followed by all foreign institutions which plan to export their goods to Turkey and by the companies producing domestically in Turkey.
2. Inspection of Halal Food
It is essential that the Association for the inspection and certification of Halal food employ experienced staff trained to slaughter animals. It should also have personnel that have contemporary knowledge of food science and technology. These people should be able make detailed observations in the related industry and arrange necessary contacts.
The certifying body should be considered as a partner. For this reason, the food producer (or the applicant for the halal status) should be able to provide the required information to the certifying body accurately and properly and assist them in terms of conservation, slaughtering, production, quality control, product flow systems, hygiene, packaging, labelling, transportation and housing.
Certifying body should have a board of advisors who will give adequate advice regarding slaughtering and other related issues as per the regulations of the science of fiqh, and make decisions from a religious point of view. These consultants should be backed up by technical science committee through life sciences and technology, so that they can offer appropriate ideas and determine guidelines.
Certification institutions must keep a detailed document of production procedures including raw material procurement and storage, processing, packaging, labelling, transportation and storage of ready products.
The institution to be inspected must keep documents ready to be examined during the inspectors’ visits. Inspectors and consultants must keep the use of the name of the institution and the use of halal logo under control.
Certification institution must cease the use its name, logo and symbols by the companies in case the certification of a company or a product is terminated by the certifier for any reason. In this case consumers should be informed about this change.
In addition, the certifying body should have adequate information about the legislations and regulations of countries with which import and export trade is present.
Halal food in Islamic Fiqh is the permitted foods and drinks. The Islamic Fiqh is based on Quran, Sunna, Ijma and Qiyas. When a fatwa issued from a Fiqh Council on an Ijma and Qiyas basis by taking into consideration Hanafi, Shafii, Maliki and Hanbali regulations, this fatwa must carry the following conditions:
A- Any food or its additives have to be free of any component of Haram material or of haram animals or of animals not slaughtered conforming to the Islamic norms.
B- Food or the additives in the food has to be free of what it’s called Najis in the Islamic Fiqh.
C- Food and its additives have to be prepared, processed and manufactured by using clean tools only and these tools and equipment should not have any contact with substances considered in the Islamic Fiqh as Najis. These tools and equipment have to be physically separated from Haram material during all the process of preparation, treatment, packaging, storage and transportation, so as to avoid any mixing between them.
All kinds of water and drinks are Halal except intoxicating, alcoholic or unhealthy drinks or milk. Halal drinks mixed or contaminated with Najis substances or poisons are also Haram.
4.1 Being Najis in Islam:
4.1.1 Following are considered Najis in Islam fiqh.
(a) Sperm and ovas, nasal mucus and tears of pig and dog,
(b) Urine, excrement, blood, vomit and pus of humans and other animals,
(c) Other body fluids and solid material from the bodies of humans and animals with the exception of tears and nasal mucus.
4.1.2 Dead animals or animals not slaughtered according to the Islamic rules. Milk from these animals and alive fetuses are considered halal.
4.1.3 If Halal foods or drinks contact directly or are contaminated with Najis materials they also become Najis.
4.2 BIOTECHNOLOGICALLY PRODUCED FOOD AND BEVERAGES
Products that contain GMO (Genetically modified organisms) are considered as both unhealthy for human health and questionable according to Islam. For this reason, such products will not be certifed.
5-HALAL FOOD AND BEVERAGE ORIGINS
We can divide animals into two categories:
5.1.1 Land Animals: All land animals are Halal except the following:
18.104.22.168 Animals not slaughtered according to Islamic rules.
22.214.171.124 Pigs, their flesh and blood.
126.96.36.199 Animals those that use their sharp teeth to kill their preys.
188.8.131.52 Birds of prey.
184.108.40.206 Rats, scorpions, poisonous snakes, earthworms, flies,
220.127.116.11 Crocodiles, turtles, frogs and seals.
18.104.22.168 Animals treated with products provided from Haram origins
22.214.171.124 Eggs and milk of haram animals are also considered haram.
5.1.2 WATER ANIMALS
Water animals are those that can’t live outside the water like fish. As they are without blood, they don’t need to be slaughtered; therefore they are accepted as halal.
All plants are Halal except those which are poisonous, unhealthy or intoxicating.
5.3 MICROORGANISMS AND MUSHROOMS
All microorganisms, mushrooms cultures, their derivates and products are Halal except those which are poisonous, unhealthy or intoxicating.
6.1 Slaughter conditions
Only animals and birds that carry the following conditions can be slaughtered:
6.1.1 All animals and fowl have to be healthy, free of disease, scars and any corporal dysfunctions.
6.1.2. Animals should be well fed by their natural food. They are not to be fed by najis or meat products.
6.1.3 Animals and fowl have to be humanly treated before slaughter. It’s strictly forbidden to do an act of fright, biting, making sick or giving stress to animals and fowl before slaughter.
6.1.4 It’s absolutely forbidden to wound or cut any parts before they are totally dead.
6.2. Slaughter Conditions
Halal animals’ slaughterhouse has to be separated from Haram animals’ slaughterhouse. Halal slaughter has to be performed according to the following rules:
6.2.1 Animal or bird must be of halal species.
6.2.2 Slaughtering must be done by a mature Muslim of sound mind, trained in slaughtering method for the type and size of the animal to be slaughtered.
6.2.3 The name of Allah (Bismillah Allahu Akbar) must be verbally invoked by the Muslim slaughter person before and during the slaughter. This is compulsory for all Mazhabs.
6.2.4 Salughtering must be carried out on the neck from the front cutting the esophagus, wind pipe, jugular veins and carotid arteries, without cutting the spinal cord beyond the neck muscle.
6.2.5 Slaughtering must be carried out by a sharp knife in a swift step so that the animal does not feel the pain of cutting.
6.2.6 Blood must be drained out completely and the animal must die of bleeding rather than any other injury.
6.2.7 Animal or bird should be healthy and free from any disease and defects.
6.2.8 Animal or bird should be given water before slaughtering and be handled humanely so that it stays calm and not stressed out.
6.2.9 Slaughter person should face Qibla (Mekkah) during the slaughtering.
6.2.10 Knives and slaying tools that are used in slaughtering should not be used for haram animals or haram material.
6.2.11 Skinning or cutting the parts or the head should only begin after the animal is completely dead.
6.2.12 Slaughtering must be done only for and in the name of Allah. Other purposes or means are totally haram.
6.2.13 All certificates including healths certificates obtained from the exporter country should be authenticated and approved by GIMDES or by an Islamic institution recognized and approved by GIMDES.
6.3 APPLY OF SHOCK TO ANIMALS
For birds, only shower type shocks are permitted for stunning. It is forbidden to use any type of shocks for other animals.
6.4 SLAUGHTER OF FOWLS
It’s strictly forbidden to use automated or machine knives for slaughter of fowls:
6.4.1 Slaughter of birds is to be performed manually by using –according to establishment capacity- human slaughterers who have to be Muslims. The slaughterers use knifes to cut animals coming from the conveyor system and they invoke the dua of ‘Bismillahi Allahu Akbar’. `
6.4.2 Single edge knives are to be used for slaughter and have to be always maintained sharp.
During the slaughter, bird throats, esophagus and jugular veins have to be cut. Neck should not be cut completely.
6.4.3 Slaughterer has to control bird one by one to ensure they are all slaughtered. They have to be totally died before being plucked.
6.4.4 Plucking process should be done in clean water with a maximum temperature of 48-50C.
7-GENERAL TERMS FOR HALAL MEAT PRODUCTS
7.1 PREPARATION, PROCESSING, PACKAGING, TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE
All foods, including meat, are to be prepared, processed, packed, transported and stored according to current codex alimentarius and hygiene general principles and standards in addition to all the Islamic principles of Halal food.
7.2 PROCESSING AND TREATMENT
All treated food is Halal if it carries the following terms:
7.2.1 Any products or their food additives have to be free of all Haram elements or ingredients provided from haram animals or from animals not slaughtered according to the Islamic rules.
7.2.2 Products have to be free of any matter considered as Najis in the Islamic rules.
7.2.3 Products have to be prepared, treated and manufactured by using tools and equipment totally free of anything considered Najis.
7.2.4 During their preparation, processing, packaging, storage and transportation, all products have to be kept away from food which don’t carry the above three terms or which are Najis according to the Islamic rules.
7.3 TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS
Tools and equipments are to be used for only Halal food processing. According to the Islamic rules, use of the same place and tools for Halal and Non-Halal food processing are not permitted even if those equipment or place can be totally cleaned.
7.4 STORAGE, SHOWING AND SERVICE
All Halal products that are stored, exposed, sold and served are to be classified and labeled as Halal in their all process so that any confusion between them and Non-Halal products can be avoided.
7.5 PACKAGING AND LABELING
Products are to be packed according the rules and have to provide the following terms:
7.5.1 Packaging tools have to be Halal.
7.5.2 Packaging equipments are to be free of any forbidden or Najis material according to the Islamic rules.
7.5.3 Packaging equipments can’t be prepared, processed or manufactured by using material contaminated with najis.
7.5.4 These equipments have to be separated from food which don’t have the above conditions or from material that are considered as Najis according to the Islamic rules during their preparation, treatment, packaging, storage and transportation. Meat and its products packets have to be transported in perfect cleanliness, health and hygiene conditions. The term of Halal label or its equivalent has to be legibly written on products.
8-HYGIENE AND BEING HEALTHY
Hygiene is very important in Islam. This includes places, tools, costumes and personal cleanliness used in food manufacturing. The goal is to provide food that is safe and healthy for the consumption. The below conditions are to be met at all times:
8.1 Product has to be manufactured and packed in hygienic conditions and in authorized places of good manufacturing.
8.2 The above principles are mentioned in a document entitled: “Recommended International Code of Practice-General Principles of Food Hygiene”. It’s surely recommended to follow them.
A product which is considered as Halal has to conform this specification, especially the articles between the 2nd and the 7th. GIMDES will verify and authenticate this before any certification is considered.
10-CONFORMITY LEVEL IN HALAL CERTIFICATION
Inspection in Halal certification includes preparation, slaughter, treatment, packaging, storage, cleanliness, disinfection and management practices in all respects. Inspection should not bear any doubts or carry any questions. If the inspector is fully satisfied by his observing in all aspects and is assured beyond doubt, he should recommend Halal certification.
11.1 Procedure of Halal certification for a foreign factory may imply that an authorized and appointed association by GIMDES can control and inspect the factory in its own premises to fix its Halal status. This Islamic establishment has to be officially recognized and appointed by GIMDES so that when it reports back its positive comments GIMDES approves the Halal Certificate.
11.2 In the beginning each applicant is certified for halal for one year when and if all conditions are fully met. In this period the company will be visited and inspected by an Islamic establishment with and without notice. Every two years the factory will be periodically inspected by an authorized and appointed establishment by GIMDES in order to check and maintain its Halal status.
12-APPLYING FOR HALAL STATUS
All companies can apply to GIMDES to get certified as Halal if they provide the above mentioned rules and terms.
13-HALAL CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR CATERERS
13.1 Restaurants and food servicing areas should be inspected by an inspector of the certifying body on the request of proprietor or establishment. The inspector shall control all cooking materials, kitchen appliances, freezers / refrigerators, packages, storage areas, menus and report the findings. If results are found to be reasonable, the restaurant or food servicing area would be certified as Halal Service supplier and halal certificate validity will be one (1) year.
13.2 Restaurant or food servicing area is prohibited to process or serve any products of pork during the validity of the Halal certification. Alcohol is also not allowed for use or to serve in this restaurant or food servicing area.
13.3 Raw or processed meat used for preparing food should be provided from a Halal certified slaughterhouse. Every piece of meat should be marked as halal.
13.4 Aromas, flavors, oil and marinated solutions should be inspected and verified for Halal ingredients by the inspector.
13.5 Restaurant and service areas together with all tools and equipment should be regularly and thoroughly cleaned. Fresh meat should not contact any other food.
13.6 Convenient restrooms should be located outside of the food preparation areas and employees should be able to wash their hands with clean water and soap after using these restrooms. Restaurant employees should be aware of hygiene rules. Customers should be able to visit these restrooms
13.7 When the restaurant is certified by the certifying body, restaurant management should exhibit the halal certificate in order to inform customers and controllers.
13.8 The certified facilities should be inspected frequently by Muslim controllers without notice.
14. Other Halal Foods and Components / Requirements for Derivatives
14.1 Plants and Other Species
All plants, fungi, algae, bacteria etc are considered Halal except those that are unhealthy, poisonous or intoxicating.
14.2 Fruits, Fruit Juices and Vegetables
Fruits, vegetables and natural fruit juices are considered halal if they are totally pure. Treated fruits, oils, preservatives, flavors that have been processed in non-halal facilities may not be considered as halal until they are throughly inspected and verified that they are pure. Processed oils and other components should be identified for process type and ingredients and then decided if they are Halal or not.
14.3 Milk and Milk Products
Milk: Milk obtained from domestic animals is considered halal.
Yoghurt: Yoghurt and yoghurt products must not contain gelatin.
Cheese: Many cheeses contain rennet and other enzymes obtained from animals. These enzymes must be provided by Halal animals or plants, or microbial sources.
14.4 Bread, Cake and bakery products
Bakery products is an important concern from the Halal view. Because bakery products and fried chicken may contain cysteine, fats, oils, colorants, flavors, yeast, preservatives, and alcohol-based components. Bread, cakes and pastries should not have any alcohol, or non-Halal products, or components that may include material obtained from animals.
14.5 Oils and fats
Butter should be from milk; milk should be obtained from halal animals. Vegetable oils should be from plants only. Haram or unhealthy or harmful material should not be used in oils or fats.
14.6 Alcohol By-products
When alcohol is meant, it is generally ethyl alcohol. Alcohol and products containing alcohol components are prohibited in Islam, even if they are used solely for cooking purposes or even used as filling material in confectioner. Artificial or natural flavors, colors, and some meat or vegetable additives should not contain alcohol to provide aroma.
15. Other Components and Derivatives
Before use, any component should be checked and verified that it is certified as Halal by a Halal certifying body, regardless of being used by itself or mixed with other materials.
16. Certificates according to Mazhabs
There might be some disputes between mazhabs in the understanding and setting up rules of certification. When there is such a dispute, the following way should be taken :
16.1 As all notable Mazhabs represent Islam, the Ijtihad (ruling) of one or more Mazhab will be enough if their rulings approve something as Halal.
16.2 When one or more Mazhabs object to this ruling, this will be shown in the rectangular box underneath the Halal logo
16.3 The fatwas given for new products will be shown in a separate box if necessary.
17. Abrogation of HALAL STATUS
GIMDES has the right to abrogate, suspend or reject halal status of a certified company or products if below conditions are met:
a. Any indication of violation of the Halal terms by the company.
b. Errors indicated in the annual reports prepared by authorized body on subject of company’s Halal status.
c. The Islamic body is not functioning properly or it is not accredited.
d. GIMDES will not be willing to grant Halal status if below points are observed
e. GIMDES has the right to control the company again for any technical violation or insufficiency or inconsistency in the annual reports.
f. In case any unethical or unlawful or inadequate practice occurs in a company which results in a loss of trust, the Halal status will be suspended for a period of at least five years. After the suspension period the suspended part can apply for a new inspection of its efficiency.
18. APPLICATION FOR HALAL CERTIFICATION INSPECTION
GIMDES reserves itself the right to accept or refuse the competence and performance of the inspections of an Islamic body without showing any explanation in case of refuse.